联合国贸发会议:COVID-19如何改变全球价值链

       2020-09-02       联合国贸发会议       2020-09-03 08:10:05

COVID-19危机扩大了全球价值链(GVCs)运作中的严重断层,暴露了一种模式的脆弱性,这种模式的特点是位于几个大洲的领先企业和供应商之间高度相互依赖。
在这一时期,关键产品的及时生产比以往任何时候都更为重要,因为这场流行病以前所未有的方式封锁了地球的大部分地区,限制了经济活动。
技术和全球化的趋势以及1990年代初以来实施的监管框架,促使价值链底部低附加值和工资敏感的活动大量离岸外包给生产能力有限的发展中经济体。
相反,基于难以获得的独特资源和能力的研发、设计、营销和品牌推广等无形任务基本上仍在总部执行,产生了丰厚的回报,往往是以租金的形式。

The COVID-19 crisis has amplified profound fault lines in the functioning of global value chains (GVCs) and exposed the fragility of a model characterized by high interdependencies between leading firms and suppliers located across several continents.

All at a time when timely production of critical products is more important than ever, amid a pandemic that has locked down vast parts of the planet and limited economic activities in an unprecedented way.

Trends in technology and globalization, and the regulatory framework in place since the early 1990s, have fostered massive offshoring of low-value-adding and wage-sensitive activities at the bottom of value chains to developing economies with limited productive capacities.

On the contrary, intangible tasks such as research and development, design, marketing and branding, based on unique resources and capabilities that are difficult to acquire, are largely still performed in headquarters, generating superior returns, often in the form of rents. [View More...]

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